Blood in the urine, medically known as hematuria, is a condition that refers to the presence of red blood cells in urine. This can give the urine a pink, red or cola-colored appearance and is usually a symptom of an underlying medical condition rather than being a specific disease itself. Hematuria can be further categorized into two types: gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria.
Gross hematuria refers to the condition where the blood is visibly noticeable in the urine. In such cases, the urine might appear pink, red, or brown. On the other hand, microscopic hematuria is when blood cells in the urine are not visible to naked eyes but can be detected under a microscope.
The presence of blood in the urine may not always indicate a serious problem. For instance, strenuous exercises, certain medications or even menstrual flow in women can temporarily cause hematuria. However, it could also indicate more severe health conditions. The common causes include urinary tract infections (UTI), kidney infections, bladder or kidney stones, kidney disease, or urinary tract injury. Less commonly, it could be a sign of kidney or bladder cancer.
Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria enter the body through the urethra and proliferate in the bladder. Symptoms may include a persistent urge to urinate, frequent urination, burning sensation during urination and cloudy urine.
Kidney infections are a type of UTI that occurs when bacteria or viruses from the bladder moves to one or both of the kidneys. Typical symptoms include back or groin pain, fever, frequent urination and abdominal pain.
Bladder or kidney stones form when the concentrations of certain substances are high in the urine. They may not cause symptoms until they move around within your kidney or pass into your ureters, when they can cause severe pain.
In some instances, certain medications such as the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide and penicillin can cause urinary bleeding. In rare cases, strenuous exercise like long-distance running can cause gross hematuria.
Finally, the presence of blood in the urine may indicate kidney disease, and in rare cases – bladder or kidney cancer. Therefore, it’s crucial not to ignore this symptom and seek immediate medical attention.
The diagnosis process typically involves a series of tests such as urine tests, imaging tests, and sometimes cystoscopy. The treatment of hematuria depends on the underlying cause. Antibiotics are prescribed for UTIs, medication or surgical treatment for kidney or bladder stones, and specific treatment plans are developed for medical conditions like kidney disease or cancer.
Remember, although seeing blood in your urine can be frightening, don’t panic. It’s crucial to get in touch with your healthcare provider who can guide you through the diagnosis and treatment process based on your individual condition and symptoms.